Proliferation Enhancement of T lymphocytes and Anti-Aging Implications
Researchers at Indiana-Purdue University in Fort Wayne, Indiana conducted proliferation assays to measure increased lymphocyte proliferation, which is indicative of a heightened immune response. The mitogen, Concanavalin A (ConA), was incorporated to focus specifically on the stimulation of the proliferation of T lymphocytes. The results indicated a dose-dependent, step-wise increase in proliferation for all Artemis standardized berry extracts tested, which is indicative of enhanced immune response.
When the spleen cells of young mice (3 months old) were compared against the spleen cells of aged mice, the effects on aged spleen cells were enhanced to a greater extent than those of the young mice. With certain concentrations of berry extract, a two-fold increase in proliferation was experienced in aged spleen cells, greater than that with the young cells. This suggests that the berry extracts have significant benefits for reversing the natural decrease of immune function with age.
Blumenthal, E.J., and Bush, M.C. 2006. The effects of berry extracts on immune system function and LnCap cancer cell growth. Unpublished data-manuscript in preparation.
Stimulation of Cytokine Production and Anti-Aging Implications
The Indiana-Purdue University researchers conducted cytokine assays on aged berry-treated murine spleen cells to measure the production of 1) Interleukin 2 (IL-2), a T cell growth factor needed for both T and B lymphocyte response, and 2) Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a cytokine that is involved in a variety of immune responses and also increases resistance to viral replication in host cells. The effects were examined in the cells of aged mice since aged mice have a decreased immune response due to immunosenescence. All three of the Artemis extracts tested, including Artemis’ BerryDefense™ Blend, enhanced production of both IL-2 and IFN-γ. This suggests that at least one mechanism of the berry extracts for enhanced immune response may involve activation of genes that produce IL-2 and IFN.
Blumenthal, E.J., and Bush, M.C. 2006. The effects of berry extracts on immune system function. Unpublished data.